Refs: The Bibliographic Evidence

The final objective of this website’s is to provide a one-stop resource for concerned citizens who want to learn more about the shape of designer extinction.

Why? Because it’s time more concerned citizens made the move from half-hearted Environmentalism to full-on Gaianism. A Gaianist is one who not only discerns the shape of right relation with the living world, but attempts to embody that relation in one’s own day-to-day. Deep ecologists are Gaianists, so are members of the Extinction Rebellion. The CEOs of most large environmental organizations are not Gaianists – not if they believe going greem means swapping out from fuels for “clean energy” without at the same time clawing back on their own typically exorbitant lifestyles. That is Environmentalism, not Gaianism.

How? As with Charles Darwin and his barnacles, as with E.O. Wilson and his ants, as with David Suzuki and his fruit flies, so with Gaianism: one begins by loving and learning about some part of the living world, and then moves out from there. Deep-Snow Caribou shed illuminating light on the structure of our current social order. If only for this reason, they make a perfect entry point to apprenticeship. Hence this bibliography.

PAPERS & REPORTS PERTAINING TO WOODLAND CARIBOU, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DEEP-SNOW MOUNTAIN CARIBOU, WOLVES, OLDGROWTH INLAND RAINFORESTS & ARBOREAL HAIR LICHENS

NOTE: This webpage is under construction. More to come. Stay tuned.

CURRENT TO 31 JULY 2020

Adams, L.G. 2003. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves. Journal of Wildlife Management 67:20–24.

Adams, L.G. 2005. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou. Journal of Mammalogy 86:506–513.

Aagnes, T.H., W. Sormo and S.D. Mathiesen. 1995. Ruminal microbial digestion in free-living, in captive lichen-fed, and in starved reindeer (Rangifer tranadus tarandus) in Winter. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Feb 1995: 583–591.

Andrews, W.J. 2017. Species at Risk Act, S.C. 2002, c. 29 Application to The Honourable Catherine McKenna, Minister of Environment and Climate Change and to Governor in Council for an Emergency Order under section 80 to Protect Matrix Range Critical Habitat of the Wells Gray-Thompson Local Population Unit of the Woodland Caribou, Southern Mountain Caribou population (Rangifer tarandus caribou) Against Timber Harvesting and Related Road-building on Provincial Crown Land. 68 pages + appendices. Available here. (Accessed August 2018.)

Anonymous. 2017. Wolf Management Plan for Caribou: Summary Year Three – 2016–17 FINAL – August 28 2017. Available here. (Accessed July 2018.)

Antifeau, T.D. 1987. The significance of snow and arboreal lichens in Wells Gray Provincial Park with special reference to their importance to mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the North Thompson watershed of British Columbia. M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia. 142 pages.

Apps, C. and B. McLellan. 2006. Factors influencing the dispersion and fragmentation of endangered mountain caribou populations. Biological Conservation 130: 84–97.

Apps, C.D., B.N. McLellan, T.A. Kinley and J.P Flaa. 2001. Scale-dependent habitat selection by mountain caribou, Columbia Mountains, British Columbia. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 65–77.

Apps, C.D., B.N. McLellan, T. Kinley, R. Serrouya, D. Seip and H. Wittmer. 2013. Spatial factors related to mortality and population decline of endangered mountain caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 1409–1419.

Armleder, H.M. and S.K. Stevenson. 1996. Using alternative silvicultural systems to integrate Mountain Caribou and timber management in British Columbia. Rangifer, Special Issue 9: 141–147.

Arsenault, A. and T. Goward. 2000. Ecological characteristics of inland rain forests. At risk: proceedings of a conference on the biology and management of species and habitats at risk, Kamloops, B.C., 15–19 February, 1999, Vol. 1 (ed. by L.M. Darling), pp. 437–439. BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC.

Auditor General of British Columbia. 2015. Managing the cumulative effects of natural resource development in British Columbia. Auditor General of British Columbia, Victoria. Available here. (Accessed October 2018.)

BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Integrated Land Management Bureau. 2007. Mountain Caribou Recovery Implementation Plan, comprised of: News Release, Backgrounder, and Map. 16 October 2007. Available at xxx. (Accessed xxx)

BC Ministry of Environment. 2009. Mountain Caribou Recovery Implementation Plan: Update to the Mountain Caribou Progress Board, February 2009. Available here. (Accessed October 2018.)

Bergerud, A.T. 1974. Decline of caribou in North America following settlement. Journal of Wildlife Management 38: 757–770.

Bergerud, A.T. 1996. Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics, have we got it right yet? Rangifer Special Issue 9: 95–116.

Bergerud, A.T. 2000. Caribou. Chapter 11, pages 658–693 in Ecology and Management of Large Mammals in North America. S. Demarais and P.R. Krausmann (eds.). Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Bergerud, A.T. and J.P. Elliot. 1986. Dynamics of caribou and wolves in northern British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 64: 1515–1529.

Bird, C., R. Gill, R. Serrouya and H. van Oort. 2015–16. Lake Revelstoke wolf census. BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations, Nelson, BC. Available here. (Accessed August 2018).

Boan, J.J., J.R. Malcolm, M.D. Vanier, D.L. Euler and F.M. Moola. 2018. From climate to caribou: how manufacturing of uncertainty is affecting wildlife management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 42: 366–381.

Boutin, S. and E. Merrill. 2016. A review of population-based management of Southern Mountain caribou in BC. Report to Columbia Mountains Institute. March 2016. Available at xxx (Accessed October 2018)

Brook, R.K., M. Cattet, C.T. Darimont, P.C. Paquet and G. Proulx. 2015. Maintaining ethical standards during conservation crises. Canadian wildlife biology and management 4: 72–79.

Brockman, C.J., W.B. Collins, J.M. Welker, D.E. Spalinger and B.W. Dale. 2017. Determining kill rates of ungulate calves by brown bears using neck-mounted cameras. Wildlife Society Bulletin 41: 88–97.

Brook, R.K., M. Cattet, C.T. Darimont, P.C. Paquet and G. Proulx. 2015. Maintaining ethical standards during conservation crises. Canadian wildlife biology and management 4: 72–79.

Brown, G.S., L. Landriault, D.J.H. Sleep and F.F. Mallory. 2007. Comments arising from a paper by Wittmer et al.: hypothesis testing for top-down and bottom-up effects in woodland caribou populations dynamics. Oecologia 154: 485–492.

Brown, G. and F. Mallory. 2007. A review of ungulate nutrition and the role of top-down and bottom-up forces in woodland caribou population dynamics. National Council for Air and Stream Improvement. Technical Bulletin No. 934: 1–94.

Cameron, R.D., W.T. Smith, S.G. Fancy, K.L. Gerhart and R G. White. 1993. Calving success of female caribou in relation to body weight. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 480–486.

Campbell, J. and D.S. Coxson. 2003. Canopy microclimate and arboreal lichen loading in subalpine spruce-fir forest. Canadian Journal of Botany 79: 537–555.

Campbell, J., S.K. Stevenson and D.S. Coxson. 1999. Estimating epiphyte abundance in high elevation forests of Northern British Columbia. Selbyana 20: 261–267.

Ceballos, G., P.R. Ehrlich, A.B. Barnosky, A. Garcia, R.M. Pringle and T.M. Palmer. 2015. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: entering the sixth mass extinction. Scientific Advances 1:e1400253.

Ceballos, G., P.R. Ehrlich and R. Dirzo. 2017. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signalled by vertebrate population losses and declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 114: E6089–E6096.

Cocklin, C., S. Parker and J. Hay. 1992. Notes on cumulative environmental change I: concepts and issues. Journal of Environmental Management 35: 31–49.

Collard, R.-C., J. Dempsey and M. Holmberg. 2019. Extirpation despite regulation? Environmental assessment and caribou. Conservation Science and Practice. 2020;2:e166. Available here. (Accessed July 2020.)

Cook, R.C., J.G. Cook, D.J. Vales, B.K. Johnson, S.M. McCorquodale, L.A. Shipley, R.A. Riggs, L.L. Irwin, S.L. Murphie, B.L. Murphie and K.A. Schoenecker. 2013. Regional and seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and reproduction in elk. Wildlife Monographs 184: 1–45.

Cook, J. and R. Cook. 2015. Nutritional condition of caribou in Northern British Columbia, 2012–2015 and Southern Northwest Territories. Annual Progress report, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement. 16 pages. (Not seen, cited in Boutin & Merrill 2016)

COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xi + 98 pp. Available here. (Accessed October 2018.)

COSEWIC. 2011. Designatable Units for Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 88 pages. Available at xxx

COSEWIC. 2014. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Caribou Rangifer tarandus, Northern Mountain population, Central Mountain population and Southern Mountain population in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. xxii + 113 pages. Available here. (Accessed October 2018.)

Cox, S. 2018a. All hype, no help: B.C. draws ire from scientists over caribou plan. The Narwhal 19 Oct 2018. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Cox, S. 2018b. BC approves 83 logging cutblocks in endangered caribou habitat in last six months. The Narwhal 23 Oct 2018. Available here. (Accessed October 2018.)

Cox, S. 2019a. “A sad day”: two more BC mountain caribou herds now locally extinct. The Narwhal 14 Jan 2019. Available here. (Accessed March 2019).

Cox, S. 2019b. BC approves 314 new cutblocks in endangered caribou habitat over last five months. The Narwhal 14 March 2019. Available here. (Accessed March 2019).

Cox, S. 2020a. ‘A dangerous road’: Coastal GasLink pays to kill wolves in endangered caribou habitat in B.C. interior. The Narwhal 13 April 2020. Available here.

Cox, S. 2020b. The complicated tale of why B.C. paid $2 million to shoot wolves in endangered caribou habitat this winter. The Narwhal 25 April 2020. Available here. (Accessed July 2020).

Coxson, D.S. and M. Coyle. 2003. Niche partitioning and photosynthetic response of lichens from subalpine spruce-fir forest in north-central British Columbia, Canada: the role of canopy microclimate. Lichenologist 35: 157–175.

Coxson, D.S. and M. Curteanu. 2002. Decomposition of hair lichens (Alectoria sarmentosa and Bryoria spp.) under snowpack in montane forest, Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia. Lichenologist 34: 395–402.

Coxson, D., T. Goward and J.R. Werner. 2020. The Inland Temperate Rainforest and Interior Wetbelt Biomes of Western North America. Pages 88–102 in M.I. Goldstein and D.A. DellaSala (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the World’s Biomes, vol. 3. Elsevier, pp. 88–102.

Ccc! Coxson, D.S. and Stevenson 2005 xxx

Della Sala, D., P. Alaback, L. Craighead, T. Goward, P. Paquet and T. Spribille. 2011. Chapter 3. Temperate and boreal rainforests of inland northwestern North America. Pp. 82–110 in D. Della Sala (ed.): Temperate and boreal rainforests of the world. Island Press, Washington.

DeMars, C. 2017. Recovery action plan for Southern Mountain caribou within the Kootenay Region. BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, Victoria. Not seen, cited in report available here. (Accessed October 2018)

Detrick, R.W.T. 1985. Effects of fire and logging on arboreal lichen availability to caribou. M.Sc. thesis, University of Idaho Graduate School. 49 pages.

Dickie, M., R. Serrouya, C. DeMars, J. Cranston and S. Boutin. 2017. Evaluating functional recovery of habitat for threatened woodland caribou. Ecosphere 8(9):e01936: 1–15.

Doak, D.F., J.A. Estes, B.S. Halpern, U. Jacob, D.R. Lindberg, J. Lovvorn, D.H. Monson, M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams, J.T. Wootton, I. Carroll, M. Emmerson, F. Micheli and M. Novak. 2008. Understanding and Predicting Ecological Dynamics: Are Major Surprises Inevitable? Ecology 89: 952–961.

Dyer, S.J., J.P. O’Neill, S.M. Wasel and S. Boutin. 2001. Avoidance of industrial development by woodland caribou. The Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 531–542.

Edmonds, J. 1991. Status of woodland caribou in western North America. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 7: 91–107.

Edwards, R.Y. 1954. Fire and the decline of a mountain caribou herd. Journal of Wildlife Management 18: 521–526.

Edwards, R.Y. 1956. Snow depths and ungulate abundance in the mountains of western Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 20: 159–168.

Edwards, R.Y. 1958. Land form and caribou distribution in British Columbia. Journal of Mammology 39: 408–412.

Edwards, R.Y. and R.W. Ritcey. 1959. Migrations of caribou in a mountainous area in Wells Gray Park, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 73: 21–25.

Edwards, R.Y. and R.W. Ritcey. 1960. Foods of caribou in Wells Gray Park, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 74: 3–7.

Edwards, R.Y., J. Soos and R.W. Ritcey. 1960. Quantitative observations of epidendric lichens used as food by caribou. Ecology 41: 425–431.

Elbroch, L.M., P.E. Lendrum, J. Newby, H. Quigley and D.J. Thompson. 2015. Recolonizing wolves influence the realized niche of resident cougars. Zoological Studies 54:41: 1–15.

Environment Canada. 2014. Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou, Southern Mountain population (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada, Ottawa. viii + 103 pages. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2018. Imminent Threat Assessment for Southern Mountain Caribou. 41 pages. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Esseen, P.-A., T. Olsson., D. Coxson and Y. Gauslaa. 2015. Morphology influences water storage in hair lichens from boreal forest canopies. Fungal Ecology 18: 26–35.

Festa-Bianchet, M., J.C. Ray, S. Boutin, S.D. Côté and A. Gunn. 2011. Conservation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Canada: an uncertain future. Can. J. Zool. 89: 419–434.

Fisher, J.T. and L. Wilkinson. 2005. The response of mammals to forest fire and timber harvest in the North American boreal forest. Mammal Review 25: 51–18.

Flaa, J.P. and B.N. McLellan. 2000. Population characteristics of the Lake Revelstoke caribou. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a conference on the biology and management of species and habitats at risk, Kamloops, B.C., 15–19 Feb., 1999. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C. and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, B.C.

Forest Practices Board. 2011. Cumulative effects: from assessment towards management, Special Report, FPB/SR/39, March 2011. Available at xxx (Accessed October 2018)

Forest Practices Board. 2015a. Timber Removal in Mountain Caribou Habitat, Special Investigation, FPB/SIR/45, December 2015. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Forest Practices Board. 2015b. Access Management and Resource Roads: 2015 update. Special Report, FPB/SR/49, April 2015. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Freddy, D.J. 1974. Status and management of the Selkirk caribou herd, 1973. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Idaho. 132 pages.

Freeman, N. 2008. Motorized backcountry recreation and stress response in Mountain Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 75 pages.

Furk, K., M. McLellan and R. Serrouya. 2008. Condition indices of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) found at mortality sites in the North Columbia Mountains of British Columbia. Unpublished report to BC Ministry of Forests and Range, March 2008. 18 pages.

Furk, K. and R. Serrouya. 2016. Revelstoke Caribou Maternity Pen Project Annual Report, Year 2, April 1st, 2015-March 31st, 2016. Unpublished report, Revelstoke Caribou Rearing in the Wild, Revelstoke, BC. Available here. (Accessed August 2018).

Furk, K. and R. Serrouya. 2017. Revelstoke Caribou Maternity Pen Project Annual Report, Year 2, April 1st, 2017-March 31st, 2017. Unpublished report, Revelstoke Caribou Rearing in the Wild, Revelstoke, BC. 21 pages. Available here. (Accessed August 2018).

Furk, K., R. Serrouya and Cory Legebokow. 2011. Population censuses of mountain caribou in the North Columbia Mountains: March 2011 – Columbia North, Columbia South, Frisby-Queest and Monashee South subpopulations. Unpublished report to BC Ministry of Forests and Range, March 2011. 20 pages.

Garrott, R.A., J.E. Bruggeman, M.S. Becker, S.T. Kalinowski and P.J. White. 2007. Evaluating prey switching in wolf-ungulate systems. Ecological Applications 17: 1588–1597.

Gerhart, K.L., D.E. Russell, D. Van de Wetering, R.G. White and R.D. Cameron. 1997. Pregnancy of adult caribou (Rangifer tarandus): evidence for lactational infertility. Journal of Zoology 242: 17–30.

Gillis, D. 2017a. BC Liberals grant major political donor permission to log endangered caribou habitat. The Narwhal 3 April 2017. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Gillis, D. 2017b. Endangered Caribou habitat clearcut during B.C. election uncertainty. The Narwhal 26 July 2017. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Government of Canada. 2017. Canada-British Columbia Southern Mountain Caribou (Central Group) Protection Study. February 2017. 113 pages. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Goward, T. 1994. Notes on oldgrowth-dependent epiphytic macrolichens in the humid oldgrowth forests in inland British Columbia, Canada. Acta Botanica Fennica 150: 31–38.

Goward, T. 1998. Observations on the ecology of the lichen genus Bryoria in high elevation conifer forests. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112: 496–501.

Goward, T. 2002. Hair lichens, snowpack variation and the fate of the mountain caribou: the LSC hypothesis. Abstract. Pages 41–42 in Mountain Caribou in 21st century ecosystems. Revelstoke. Columbia Mountains Institute of Applied Ecology. Available here. (Accessed July 2018).

Goward, T. 2003a. On the vertical zonation of hair Lichens (Bryoria) in the canopies of high-elevation oldgrowth conifer forests. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 114: 39–43.

Goward, T. 2003b. On the dispersal of hair lichens (Bryoria) in high-elevation oldgrowth conifer forests. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 117: 44–48.

Goward, T. and J. Campbell. 2005. Arboreal hair lichens in a young, unmanaged, mid-elevation conifer stand, with implications for Mountain Caribou. The Bryologist 108: 427–434.

Goward, T. and J. Pojar. 1998. Antique forests and epiphytic macrolichens in the Kispiox Valley. B.C. Forest Service Extension Note 33: 1–1l.

Goward, T. and A. Arsenault. 2000. Inland oldgrowth rainforests: safe havens for rare lichens? Pages 759–766 in L. Darling (ed.). Proceedings of a conference on the biology and management of species and habitats at risk, Kamloops, B.C., 15–19 Feb., 1999. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, B.C. and University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, B.C.*

Hansen, M.J., Franklin, S.E., Woudsma, C.G. and M. Peterson. 2001. Caribou habitat mapping and fragmentation analysis using Landsat MSS, TM, and GIS data in the North Columbia Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Remote sensing of Environment 77: 50–65.

Gustine, D.D., P.S. Barboza, L.G. Adams and N.B. Wolf. 2014. Environmental and physiological influences to isotopic ratios of N and protein status in a montane ungulate in winter. PloS One 9:e103471.

Harding, L. 1975. Our Mountain Caribou… endangered species? BC Outdoors 31: 24–31.

Harding, L.E. 2017. Request for an Emergency Order under the Species at Risk Act, S.C. 2002, c. 29, section 80, to Protect Matrix Range Critical Habitat of the Central Selkirk Local Population Unit of the Woodland Caribou, Southern Mountain Caribou population (Rangifer tarandus caribou) Against Timber Harvesting and Related Road-building on Provincial Crown Land. Coquitlam, B.C., Letter sent to The Hon. Katherine McKenna, Minister of Environment and Climate Change, Government of Canada, 14 April 2017. 14 pages.

Harding, L., M. Bourbonnais, A.T. Cook, T. Spribille, V. Wagner and C. Darimont. 2020. No statistical support for wolf control and maternal penning as conservation measures for endangered mountain caribou. Biodiversity and Conservation. Available here.

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Hatter, I. 2006. Mountain caribou 2006 survey results, subpopulation trends and extinction risk. Draft for Technical Review. BC Ministry of Environment. Victoria, B.C. 19 pages.

HCMRIG (Hart and Cariboo Mountains Recovery Implementation Group) 2005. Recovery implementation plan for threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Hart and Cariboo Mountains recovery area, British Colum¬bia, Canada. Unpublished report. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

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Kinley, T.A. 1999. Wildlife in British Columbia at risk: Mountain Caribou. BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC. 6 pages.

Kinley, T.A. and C.D. Apps. 2001. Mortality patterns in a herd of endangered mountain caribou. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29: 158–164.

Kinley, T.A., T. Goward, B.N. McLellan and R. Serrouya. 2007. The influence of variable snowpacks on habitat use by Mountain Caribou. Rangifer, Special Issue 17: 93–102.

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Lavoie, J. 2018a. Seeking the science behind B.C.’s wolf cull. The Narwhal 5 April 2018. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Lavoie, J. 2018b. Caribou on the brink: B.C. herd reduced to three females points to failure to protect endangered species. The Narwhal 18 April 2018. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Lavoie, J. 2018c. Minister’s inaction on B.C.’s endangered caribou ‘egregious’” federal court judge. The Narwhal 17 May 2018. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

Layser, E.F. 1974. A review of the mountain caribou of northeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho. Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science, Special Research Issue 3: 1–63.

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Leo, J.Y.H. 1994. Effects of growing elevation and host tree species on the crude protein and gross energy of arboreal lichens (Alectoria and Bryoria spp.) in the winter diet of mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). Bachelor of Science thesis, Department of Animal Science, UBC, May 1994 38 pages. [paper copy only]

Lindenmayer, D.B., M.L. Hunter, P.J. Burton and P. Gibbons. 2009. Effects of logging on fire regimes in moist forests. Conservation Letters 2: 271–277.

Lindenmayer, D.B. and J. Fischer. 2006. Habitat fragmentation and landscape change: an ecological and conservation synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.

McLellan, B.N. 2010. An historic perspective of mountain caribou distribution and abundance. BC Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Victoria, British Columbia. Unpublished manuscript. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

McLellan, B.N., J. Flaa and J. Woods. 1994. Mountain caribou censuses in the North Columbia Mountains. Unpublished report to B.C. Ministry of Forests and Canadian Parks Service, Revelstoke. 15 pages. Available here. (Accessed October 2018).

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